3 – Aryadeva: Four Hundred Verse Treatise on the Actions of a Bodhisattva’s Yoga
Five: Indicating the Behavior of Bodhisattvas
(1) There are no actions of the Buddhas
That are not causes (for benefiting others).
Even their breath is issued
Only for the sake of (acting as a) medicine for limited beings.
(2) Just as the word Lord of Death
Produces terror for all the world;
Likewise, this word Omniscient One
Produces terror indeed for the Lord of Death.
(3) The Able Sage (Buddha) possesses (the foresight to know
When) to act and not to act,
What to teach and not to teach.
Therefore, what reason is there to say
that the Omniscient One is not omniscient.
(4) Because you cannot see (any action),
Such as going and so forth, (becoming) positive and so on
Except through the thought (that motivates it),
Therefore the mind is established as crucial for all karma.
(5) For bodhisattvas, then,
Constructive (actions) and even (normally) destructive ones
Become constructive and good through their intentions.
Why? Because these (actions) are controlled
(in accordance) with their minds.
(6) The positive force of a bodhisattva’s
First (generating a deepest bodhichitta) mind
Is more especially distinguished than that which (would be required)
For all the limited beings on the earth to become
(7) And (the positive force of) someone who disciplines and causes
(others) to develop bodhichitta
Is said to be chosen as more supreme
Than that from erecting a stupa with the nature of precious gems
And as high as the universe.
(8) A spiritual mentor who wishes to benefit a disciple
Needs to show deference to his (inclinations and needs).
Because he knows not (how) to benefit himself,
(A disciple) is called “one who’s to be taught.”
(9) Just as a doctor doesn’t fight with a (patient)
Seized by demons and rage;
Likewise, a sage sees the disturbing emotions as the enemy,
Not the person who’s possessed with these emotions.
(10) Whatever (teachings) anyone has preference for,
He should be (taught to) act (in accord with) these first.
By no means is (someone a) vessel for (the profound)
If they would cause him (spiritually) to decline
(if he were taught them prematurely).
(11) Just as a mother would be more especially
concerned and loving
Toward a child afflicted with a sickness;
Likewise, the loving affection of bodhisattvas
For those not nice is especially (great).
(12) Appearing as the disciples of some
And as the spiritual mentors of others,
Those who know skilful means
Use various methods to bring insight
to those not understanding (voidness).
(13) Just as it’s rare for a physician, who has become proficient,
Not to be able to treat some sickness,
Likewise it is exceedingly rare for a bodhisattva,
after he’s gained his powers,
Not to be able to tame someone.
(14) If a bodhisattva were not to encourage some people
To be objects (for his enlightening influence),
He’d be causing them to go to worse rebirth states
And thus would become an object of abuse
For others with intelligence.
(15) And how could any (beginner bodhisattva), who
(because of jealousy)
Did not accept that it’s good to be compassionate and kind
to others oppressed (by disturbing emotions),
Later on, give with generosity and kindness
(Even his body) to these protectorless ones?
(16) In order to benefit (all) wandering beings,
(bodhisattvas) remain for as long as the universe.
If those who would remain apart (from having respect for them)
Bring ruination (upon themselves),
What’ll be for those who hate them from the bottom of their hearts?
(17) Those (bodhisattvas) who have even the five
extrasensory abilities for (helping) all beings
(Will assume even) inferior forms,
Like those of lowly (animals, in order to help others.
Such are) their extremely difficult actions (to benefit others).
(18) The Thusly Gone (Buddhas) have said
That the (amount of) positive force built up (by these bodhisattvas)
Over extremely long periods of time through (such) methods
(to benefit others) at all times
Is not even an object an omniscient mind knows.
(19) (Freedom from) death, the Dharma teachings
and (opportunities for) other lives –
(All these) are indicated by the (single) word giving.
Therefore, every time bodhisattvas hear the word giving
(It gives them great joy).
(20) To give in order to receive (something back, however),
Thinking great (enjoyment) will come about in this (lifetime)
as the result from generous giving,
Is just like selling and so forth,
And is despised (by the hallowed ones).
(21) (How can you say that those bodhisattvas) who have previously
built up negative karmic force
Cannot (eliminate) its possession (through their positive deeds)?
There’s no such thing as these (bodhisattvas) having constructive karma
And yet not being able to fulfill (the purposes of others).
(22) Those (arya bodhisattvas) whose minds have great waves
(of exceptional resolve),
Even (while remaining) in this (samsaric existence)
are not harmed (by it).
Therefore, for them, there’s no difference
(Whether they’re) in (compulsive samsaric) existence
or in a nirvana state of release.
(They’re unaffected by the disadvantages of either).
(23) (Arya bodhisattvas) are able to take birth (as they wish)
From having control over their minds at all times.
For what reason, then, should they not become
The lords of all the world, (able to help everyone)?
(24) Great outstanding (results come) from outstanding (causes).
Certain (examples of this) can be seen even in this world.
Therefore, understand that from the force
of an inconceivable (buildup of positive force),
There certainly will be (the omniscience of Buddhahood).
(25) Just as the stupid generate fear
For the extremely profound teachings (of voidness),
The cowardly generate fear
For the extremely amazing teachings
(concerning bodhisattva behavior).
Six: Indicating Methods for Ridding Yourself of Disturbing Emotions
(1) Since pleasable things cause desire to increase
And painful things cause anger to expand,
Why are pleasable things not included as ascetic practices
And why are painful things included as (these) practices?
(2) The activity of desire is to gather (things);
The activity of anger is to dispute;
And the activity of naivety is like wind
for all the elements (such as fire) –
It causes (the other disturbing emotions) to flare up.
(3) Not meeting with (what you cherish),
you have suffering due to desire.
From not having the force (to overcome enemies),
you have suffering due to anger.
From not fully understanding (reality),
you have naivety.
(Being overpowered) by those (three poisonous attitudes),
you don’t comprehend those (sufferings they cause you as suffering).
(4) Just as you see that (people) do not simultaneously meet
With phlegm and bile;
Likewise, you see that (people) do not simultaneously meet
With desire and anger (toward the same object).
(5) (A spiritual mentor) should use (disciples with) desire as servants.
Why? Because not to be deferential (with them)
is a medicine for their (desire).
But for those with anger, he should treat them as lords,
Because the medicine for their (anger) is (showing them) deference.
(6) First (in the morning), there comes (the) total naivety (of dullness).
Intermediately (during the daytime), there comes anger
(and annoyance with work).
Lastly (at night), desire arises.
Thus the day has these three stages.
(7) Although desire is not a friend, it (appears) like a friend.
Therefore shouldn’t you fear it?
Since it has no benefits,
Shouldn’t people especially rid themselves of this (seeming) friend?
(8) Desire arises from causes (namely, the habit of familiarity)
And desire arises from circumstances
(namely, meeting with an object of desire).
For the desire that arises from circumstances,
it’s easier to establish (the opponents),
But that’s not the case with the other sort.
(9) When anger is firm, it definitely (harms oneself and others).
Destructive, it brings about great faults.
By knowing the characteristics of all these types
(of disturbing emotions),
You’ll be able to bring such emotions to an end.
(10) Just as the cognitive power of the body
(pervades the whole) body,
Naivety abides in all (disturbing emotions).
Therefore, by destroying naivety,
All disturbing emotions will be destroyed.
(11) When (it’s the case that things) come about
by dependently arising, (they cannot be truly existent).
Seeing (this), naivety will not arise.
Therefore, you should make all efforts (in this,
Since) only this topic shall be related in this (text).
(12) The characteristics of always liking to dance and so on,
Giving and receiving (presents),
And keeping (fastidiously) clean and the like
Appear in people having desire.
(13) The Buddhas have said that those with desire
Should in all ways give up having
excellent, good food, clothing and shelter,
And should always abide
In the vicinity of their spiritual mentors.
(14) To become angry with someone you have no ability (toaffect)
Only makes your face ugly.
And not to have love for someone you have the ability (to help) –
This is said to be vile.
(15) Unpleasant sounds (of abuse) are said
To put an end to your previously built up negative karmic debts.
(It’s only) those bewildered, by nature, (about cause and effect)
and who aren’t upright,
Who do not accept (them as) a purification.
(16) And even unpleasant (words of abuse) that you hear,
By their essential nature, do you no harm.
Therefore, as (the harm) comes from your own prejudiced thoughts,
It’s the vain who think that it comes from others.
(17) Just as it says (in worldly texts)
That you should punish someone who abuses (you);
Likewise, then why shouldn’t you reward (this same person)
If he says something pleasant (to you)?
(18) Even if no one has spoken of your rebuke-worthy (faults,
they are obvious to everyone.
Therefore) if others should come to know of them,
It’s improper to become angry with the one who’s spoken (of them).
As (this is the case), is there need to mention
(not becoming angry with) those who speak (accusing you) falsely?
(19) (After all), unpleasant (words of abuse) from your inferiors
Do not give rise to anything serious.
Therefore, treat unpleasant (words) from inferiors
As something petty and insignificant
(coming from a child) to someone above him.
(20) Since (retaliating) has not even the slightest benefit
(In reversing) harm already done by others,
It’s only an extension of my (self-)clinging to show you respect
(O mind,) who become angry for no benefit.
(21) If, with patience, you can attain
Great positive force, without effort,
Then who would be foolish enough to prevent this
(By becoming angry)?
(22) You especially don’t generate so-called “anger”
Toward those more powerful (than yourself).
So, how could you possibly be respected
For your anger (directed) at smashing those who are weaker?
(23) Patience toward an object for anger
Gives rise to meditation (on love) for him.
If you think to discard this basis for all good qualities
(because of fearing the opinions of others),
You’re but a fool.
(24) Who can put an end to being slighted
(Even) if you go to your next life?
Therefore, since (if you retaliate, you build up)
negative karmic debts for yourself,
Mind, you should think that to be abused is all right.
(25) (In short,) any (yogi with) a consciousness (that realizes)
That consciousness (itself) is perfectly devoid
of (a truly existing) abiding and so on
Will have no place in his intelligent (mind)
For disturbing emotions to reside.
Seven: Indicating Methods for Ridding Yourself ofCraving for Pleasurable Objects That People Enjoy
(1) This ocean of suffering
Has no end at all.
Childish one, why do you not generate fear
At being immersed in it?
(2) Your youth (of the present) has come behind
(your old age of the past)
And will come once again ahead (of it, just after death).
Even if (you’re proud of your youth, thinking) it’ll last,
Yet, in this world, (youth, old age, and death) are like
competitors in a race (vying to come) first.
(3) Since, in compulsive samsara, you don’t have (the power
To guarantee) another (better) rebirth as you wish,
What intelligent person would not have fear,
Being under the power of something else,
(namely, karmic impulses and disturbing emotions)?
(4) There’ll be no end in the future (to your recurring samsaric
rebirths, if you make no effort now) –
Indeed, in all lives (you’ve remained) an ordinary being –
So, make you life (be not meaningless) like that.
Don’t become the same as you’ve been in the past.
(5) The occurrence of a (proper) listener, (teachings) to be listened to,
And one to explain them is extremely rare to find.
Therefore, in short, though recurring samsara won’t be endless
(if these conditions come together),
It’ll have no end (if they’re not).
(6) Most people are not pure,
But are fully inclined toward the direction
(of destructive behavior).
Therefore most ordinary people
Will definitely go to worse rebirth states.
(7) (The suffering of) people on (this) earth,
(which is) the ripening of their negative karmic debts,
Is seen to vie only (with that of the joyless hell realms).
Therefore, compulsive samsaric existence appears
The same as a slaughtering ground to the hallowed (aryas).
(8) If you become mad
From your mind not remaining (under your control),
What wise person would consider as not mad
Someone still living a compulsive samsaric existence?
(9) When you try to turn away from the suffering
of (excessive) walking and so on (by sitting down and so forth,
The pleasure of relief) is seen (eventually) to decline.
Therefore, those with intelligence should enhance their minds
To exhaust all their (throwing) karma.
(10) When a first cause of even one result (such as the mind)
does not appear,
At such a time, at seeing the extensive (results)
Of even a single (negative action),
In whom would the fear (of recurring samsaric existence) not arise?
(11) There’s no certainty that all (worldly karmic) fruits
(Such as prosperity) will come about.
And since even if they do come about, they will come to an end,
Why destroy yourself for their sake?
(12) (Worldly) actions, done with effort, once they are done,
Will disintegrate without any effort.
As this (naturally) happens,
Won’t you ever distance yourself from attachment
to (worldly) actions?
(13) There’s no happiness to be had (in the consciousness) of the past
(since it’s already ceased),
Nor is there in that of the future (for it hasn’t yet occurred).
It’s (the same) with that of the present too, since it will come to pass.
Therefore, for what reason do you (make all this effort)
in karmic actions (for worldly pleasure)?
(14) The wise generate fear even for higher status (states of rebirth)
The same as (they do) for the joyless hell realms.
It’s rare for them not to generate fear
For any situation anywhere in compulsive samsaric existence.
(15) If even childish beings come to understand
the sufferings of recurring samsara in all situations,
(As the aryas do, who realize voidness),
At that very moment, their minds (as ordinary beings)Will simultaneously cease for sure.
(16) Limited beings with arrogance aren’t rare,
And, as those with arrogance have no compassion,
It’s therefore said that it’s extremely hard for them
To go from brighter to brighter (rebirth states).
(17) When you turn your mind (from pleasurable objects) in this (life)
(Because of wishing for higher rebirth),
It’s well known that (in future lives) you’ll still
be focused on them.
As this is a distorted Dharma (practice),
for what reason should this be accepted as correct?
(18) (After all), when you have luxurious objects as the result
of positive karmic force,
You must protect them from (being stolen by) others.
So, how can anyone who must always guard (his wealth)
from (being ruined even by) other (factors, such as the elements),
Ever become his own (master)?
(19) Although you may follow as a Dharma (practice)
Any kind of worldly social custom (such as a marriage ceremony),
Yet, (customs change and) because of that,
Although) worldly (customs) may seem stronger than Dharma ones,
(don’t be lured).
(20) Although (pleasurable) objects may come
to your mind’s (enjoyment as a result) of constructive acts;
Nevertheless, as even those objects are considered badly
(by those wishing liberation),
What need (for them) for those who would accomplish
Anyone who gives up (these sources of distraction,
really) becomes virtuous.
(21) Anyone who (due to his having control of his mind)
has no need for (worldly) power and authority,
For him, Dharma practices (to gain such power)
Anyone who has interest in worldly power and authority
Is called but a fool among the people.
(22) If you crave and desire (to practice) the Dharma
from seeing fruits (of prosperity coming from it) in the future;
Well, if you, who are so desirous, could see
(the worse rebirths that are awaiting)
At the end of this future (prosperous life),
How could you do (this) and not be afraid?
(23) Doing positive actions for a reward is in all ways
The same as (being attached to) a salary.
How could anyone who accepts that any constructive actions
(done like that are also only causes for further samsara)
Ever commit destructive acts?
(24) But those who see wandering beings
To be like illusory people, similar to
(Creations from) a collection of mechanical devises,
Go to a hallowed, extremely radiant state of
The supreme achievement (enlightenment).
(25) (Therefore) for those who, (seeing reality,)
find no joy whatsoever
In any (pleasurable) object of recurring samsara,
Joy in any situation in it
Is something totally inappropriate